CABG is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood supply and flow to significantly narrowed or blocked artery.
CABG has significantly changed the outcome of ischemic heart disease which happens to be the leading cause of death worldwide. All patients with coronary artery disease may not need CABG but can be treated with lifestyle modification, medicines and procedures like Angioplasty. Role of CABG definitely can be emphasized if all above mentioned treatment options fail to alliate the symptoms and in certain situation it the management of choice i.e. the best option available.
Spectrum of CABG procedure varies from an emergency procedure following a heart attack or planned surgery for coronary artery disease with stable symptoms.
Talking about the procedure, in CABG we harvest a healthy blood vessel from patient’s body like leg (long saphenous vein), arm (radial artery) or chest (internal mammary artery). These conduits help in bypassing g the blocked arteries of heart to restore the good blood supply.
CABG is the most commonly performed cardiac surgery worldwide. It can be done as open technique or minimal invasive technique. Again coming to open technique, the procedure can be done on pump and off pump (beating heart). Best option for the patient needs to be individualized as per the severity and extent of disease, Also we need to keep in mind the comorbidities with the patient.
Whatever option is being taken aim of surgical outcome is to bypass maximum no of diseased or blocked artery and give adequate revascularization.
The risks and complications of CABG procedure are higher if it is done as an emergency procedure or if other comorbid conditions are there like kidney disease, diabetes, blocked artery in your legs, and lung disease.
The possible complications associated with CABG include:
- Heart rhythm irregularities
- Heart attack
- Infection of the wound
- Nerve and blood vessel damage
- Blood clots
- Recurrent chest pain
Post-operative guidelines and prevention of CAD
After the CABG surgery, few post-operative instructions need to be followed which include:
- Physical activity such as lifting heavy things or strenuous exercises should be avoided for first few weeks after surgery
- Medications may be prescribed to reduce chest pain and prevent blood clots
- Your doctor may recommend you to wear tight elastic bandage around the calf muscles
- May have to contact your doctor in case of redness, bleeding, irregular heart beat, palpitations chest pain, difficulty in breathing, and weakness
You can manage or prevent the occurrence of CAD by few lifestyle modifications which include
- Regular Exercise
- Consume a healthy diet low in salt and cholesterol
- Avoid smoking and alcohol intake
- Lose weight if you are obese
- Control diabetes and high blood pressure
- Beating Heart Bypass Surgery (off Pump)
- On-pump CABG
- High Risk CABG
- CABG In Heart Failure
- CABG With Valve Replacement or Repair
- CABG With Aneurysm Or VSD Repair
- Coronary Endarterectomy
- CABG With Carotid Endarterectomy
- Total Arterial Lima Rima Y Grafting
- Minimally Invasive CABG